Minggu, 28 April 2019


Name of Group :
Larini yulinar
 Valdo Aprio
Class               : 4Sa07                                                          
Source Language
Google Translate
For all the time that you rain on my parade
Untuksemuawaktu yang kamuhujan di parade saya
In the source language rain on my parade means to ruin one's plans or temper one's excitement or in bahasa “merusakrencanaseseorang” but when I translate in google translate, it means “hujan di parade saya”. It’s different meaning than source language.
I don't but, you still hit my phone up.
Sayatidaktetapi, Andamasihmenekanteleponsaya
In the source language hit my phone up or in idiom can be call hit me up means contact me or in bahasa “hubungisaya” but when I translate in google translate, it means “masihmenekanteleponsaya”. It’s different meaning than source language.
And baby I be movin' on and I think you should be somethin'
Dan sayangakuakanpindahdankupikirkauharusmenjadisesuatu '
In the source language movin’ on or in idiom can be call move on means  To stop focusing on someone or something in order to progress with other tasks or one's life or in bahasa “untukberhenti focus padasuatuhal” but when I translate in google translate, it means “pindah”. It’s closest in meaning than source language.
And I've been so caught up in my job, didn't see what's going on
Dan sayasudahbegituterjebakdalampekerjaansaya, tidakmelihatapa yang terjadi
In the source language caught up means not aware of reality or in bahasa “tidaksadardenganrealita” but when I translate in google translate, it means “terjebak”. It’s similar meaning to source language.
She was tickled pink when she heard the news
In the source language tickled pink means very happy or in bahasa “sangatbahagia” but when I translate in google translate, it means “menggelitikmerahmuda”. It’s different meaning than source language.
She was on cloud nine after receiving a hefty raise.
Diaberadadiawansembilansetelahmenerimakenaikangaji yang besar.
In the source language on cloud nine means feeling happy or in bahasa “merasabahagia” but when I translate in google translate, it means “di awansembilan”. It’s different meaning than source language.
I’m trying to find the remote, but it’s like a needle in a haystack
Sayamencobamenemukan remote, tetapiitusepertijarum di tumpukanjerami
In the source language like a needle in a haystack meanshaving a hard time finding it or in bahasa “memilikiwaktu yang sulituntukmenemukannya” but when I translate in google translate, it means “sepertijarum di tumpukanjerami”. It’s similar meaning to source language.
It’s hot outside, so staying inside today was a no-brainer for me.
Di luarpanas, jaditinggal di dalamhariiniadalahhal yang tidakperlubagisaya.
In the source language no-brainer means the choice was very easy to make or in bahasa “pilihan yang sangatmudah” but when I translate in google translate, it means “tidakperlu”. It’s different meaning than source language.
She’s a girl after my own heart.
In the source language after my own heart means have the same interests as me or in bahasa “memilikiketertarikan yang sama” but when I translate in google translate, it means “setelahhatikusendiri”. It’s different meaning than source language
Suddenly i’m not half the man i used to bethere’s a shadow hanging over me
Tiba-tibasayabukansetengahdaripria yang duluadabayangan di atassaya
In the source language shadow hanging over me means sadness or in bahasa “kesedihan” but when I translate in google translate, it means “adabayangan di atassaya”. It’s different meaning than source language
it’s understoodworking for peanuts is all very finebut i can show you a better time
itudipahamibekerjauntukkacangsemuanyabaik-baiksajatetapisayadapatmenunjukkanwaktu yang lebihbaik

In the source language working for peanuts means do work for a very small or low fee or in bahasa “bekerjadenganbayaranrendah” but when I translate in google translate, it means “bekerjauntukkacang”. It’s different meaning than source language
the girl that’s driving me madis going away.
gadisyang membuatkugilaakanpergi.
In the source driving me mad means make somebody upset or in bahasa “membuatseseorangkesal” but when I translate in google translate, it means “membuatkugila”. It’s similar meaning to source language
Well on the way, head in a cloudthe man of a thousand voices talking perfectly loudbut nobody ever hears him
Nah di tengahjalan, kepala di awan orang dariseribusuaraberbicarasangatkerastetapitidakada yang pernahmendengarnya
In the source language head in a cloud means daydream or in bahasa “melamun” but when I translate in google translate, it means “kepala di awan”. It’s different meaning than source language
Lend me your ears and I’ll sing you a songand I’ll try not to sing out of key
In the source language lend me your ears means listen to  meor in bahasa “dengarkanaku” but when I translate in google translate, it means “pinjamisayatelinga”. It’s closest meaning to source language
You have nothing to lose anyway.
In the source language nothing to lose means no harmsor in bahasa “tidakmerugikan” but when I translate in google translate, it means “tidakakanrugi”. It’s closest meaning to source language
After winning the beauty pageant, she became a shooting star.
Setelahmemenangkankonteskecantikan, diamenjadibintangjatuh.
In the source language shooting star means famous or in bahasa “terkenal” but when I translate in google translate, it means “bintangjatuh”. It’s different meaning than source language
Welma is such as fancy pants
In the source fancy pants means acting to impress people or in bahasa “bertingkahuntukmembuat orang terkesan” but when I translate in google translate, it means “celanamewah”. It’s different meaning than source language
She manages to maintain a poker face every time  Joey tells a joke.
Diaberhasilmempertahankanwajah pokersetiapkali Joey menceritakanlelucon.
In the source language poker face means no expressionor in bahasa “tidakadaekspresi” but when I translate in google translate, it means “wajah poker”. It’s different meaning than source language
I thought he was my best friend, but he is actually a wolf in disguise.
Sayapikirdiaadalahsahabatsaya, tetapidiasebenarnyaadalahserigala yang menyamar.
In the source a wolf in disguise means friendly but actually evil or in bahasa “ramahtapisebenarnyajahat” but when I translate in google translate, it means “serigala yang menyamar”. It’s closest meaning to source language
My sister was so starstruck when she met Oh Sehun.
Adikkusangatterkejutketikadiabertemu Oh Sehun.
In the source language starstruckmeams very fascinatedor in bahasa “sangatterpesona” but when I translate in google translate, it means “terkejut”. It’s closest meaning to source language

Kamis, 04 April 2019

Computer Aided Translation (CAT) & Computer Translation (MT)

Computer -Aided Translation (CAT) Tools are software application that assist in translating content from one language to another. 
Translation tools, also known as CAT (computer-aided translation), enhance the productivity and consistency of translators. They usually include several component technologies in a single integrated workbench, such as document editors, terminology management, and translation memory. The tools have evolved along with the computing and networking industries, first as stand-alone software to be used on a single computer, then client-server tools to be used on a company network, and most recently to cloud-based tools delivered via the internet.
A computer-assisted translation tool facilitates the translation process by resolving the text into smaller, translatable segments. It organizes these segments of text in a manner which makes it easier for the translator to translate the text effectively, and makes the process of translation time-efficient. The segments can be recalled later on and thus the translator ensures that the terminology and writing style of the original is followed. It also provides savings when the material that needs translation is similar to previously translated material – you only pay for part of the sentence that has changed.
A CAT tool further reduces any chances of errors by saving the translated segments along with the source phrase. A translator can easily access any of the translated segments at any given time to ensure that the segment has been translated adequately. Computer-assisted translation tool has been developed to allow the translator to be able to quickly search and alter-if needed- a particular segment of the text. It has been programmed to assist the translator with the revision in a timely manner.
The computer-assisted translation tool saves the translated segments and source segments as distinguished translation units. It saves these segments in a translation data base, referred to as the translational memory.
Translation units stored in the translation memory can be accessed at any given time to be re-used either in the same document or a different one. Computer-assisted translation tool is equipped with special search features to allow the translator to access segments of translated fragments even when two segments do not match completely.
A computer-assisted translation tool leads to the effective use of time and energy resources during the process of translation. It also helps to create a translation memory, which can be utilized later on as training corpus for machine translation engines.
The availability of translation units in the translation memory also ensures consistency in the usage of certain terms. This adds authenticity to the translated document.
A computer-assisted translations tool can provide with much needed assistance when translating texts of considerable sizes. It effectively aids the translator in the processes involving correct use of terminology, maintaining consistency and proof reading.
At times it happens that the translator is required to translate content which is highly technical in nature. In such cases, or otherwise, complying with a given list of specific terminologies to be used accurately in the translated document can increase the work load for the translator. Going back and forth to the provided list to tally your document with the given list of terminologies can also be quite time consuming. Computer-assisted translation tool can be programmed to automatically identify any of the places in the document where a specific terminology can be used suitably.
Computer-assisted translation tool works in compatibility with the requirements of the digital age. In most cases we can made to work in paper-less environments and computer-assisted translation tool can be of great help while working in such surroundings. It comes with the technology to provide backup support to a translated document ensuring that in case of any mishap, a copy of the document can be retrieved.
Computer-assisted translation tool has added greatly to the efficiency of translation process while ensuring the availability of quality translation. It is an essential tool for both translators and buyers of translation services.
CAT Tool Features
CAT tools are similar to a text editor, such as Microsoft Word only with additional features useful for a translation professional. There are many products on the market with different sets of features included. Below is a list of common features that are can be found in CAT tools:
Term bases are translation glossaries that are built from frequently occurring words or phrases, such as technical terms and brand names. They are used to pre-translate recurring words and phrases, and to assist translators in maintaining consistency.
Translation memory is an aligned record of previously created translations. When identical or similar segments are found in a new translation project, translation memory allows the reuse previous translations with or without modification.
Quality assurance relies on a combination of technology and processes to prevent errors from creeping into translation projects. The QA process starts before a project is sent for translation, continues throughout translation and editing, and lasts until after finalizing the new text in the final format.
Resource lookup gives access to online and offline resources, such as dictionaries and reference materials.
Word counts and match analysis provides number of words or characters along with any TM or internal matches. This forms the basis of quotes for translation services.
Term extraction allows the extraction of term lists from translation memories or translated and aligned documents to use in termbases.
Conversion of files between translation-specific (.tmx, tbx, xliff, etc.) and source formats.
Alignment is the process of matching segments in the source text with their translated renditions in order to create new translation memory files.
Machine Translation integration allows connecting an external MT engine which displays machine-translated words and phrases to the translator, who can accept or reject them.
Concordance searches are manual searches in a translation memory for a particular word or phrase.
Predictive typing suggests complete words and phrases to translators as they type based on the content of dictionaries, termbases and translation memories.
Spell check is a more advanced form of the tool typically seen in simple text editors. It allows the selection of not only language and flavor, but also specific grammar and style rules.
Software localization features allow translators to work on software files directly and see the results of their work in a mirrored rendition of the user interface of the software being translated. Once translation is done, the localized strings are automatically reintegrated in the software.
Controlled authoring prevents writers from using inconsistent terminology, highlights common errors, and produces standardized output that is search engine friendly, and translation ready.
CAT tools are generally used by individual translators and editors. More robust systems used by translation providers and translation departments inside corporations that allow for management of linguists, management of translation workflows, invoicing and billing are known as Translation Management Systems (TMS).
Computer Translation (MT) Machine translation is accomplished by feeding a text to a computer algorithm that translates it automatically into another language. That is, no human is involved in the translation process.
The advantages of machine translation include cost and speed. Computers can process a machine translation almost instantly. There are free programs such as Google Translate that can translate relatively short texts instantly, but if you need to translate a very long document, you can purchase software that can process an unlimited amount of text at the cost of the software alone. There is also software available that can be integrated with other computer and online tools, providing instant translations in various contexts.
The major disadvantage is lack of accuracy. If you’ve ever used Google Translate to attempt to understand a text in a foreign language, you will know that this method does not produce a particularly natural-sounding or accurate translation. Language is highly complex and dynamic, and while this type of translation technology has improved greatly over the years, it will never be able to completely accurately identify the nuances of each language and transfer them into another language.
It is possible to hire a “post-translation editor” to look over the translation and correct errors, but it can be harder to correctly deduct the meaning of a sentence from its machine translation than from its original language. Translators hired to “smooth out” such translations sometimes end up asking clients to send them the original text because the translation was unintelligible. This is a big waste of everybody’s time!
The best use for machine translation, then, is when you need to understand the general gist of a text. If you need an accurate translation that anyone can understand, you’ll want to opt for a computer-assisted translation.

MT Systems

Generic MT usually refers to platforms such as Google Translate, Bing, Yandex, and Naver. These platforms provide MT for ad hoc translations to millions of people. Companies can buy generic MT for batch pre-translation and connect to their own systems via API.
Customizable MT refers to MT software that has a basic component and can be trained to improve terminology accuracy in a chosen domain (medical, legal, IP, or a company’s own preferred terminology). For example, WIPO’s specialist MT engine translates patents more accurately than generalist MT engines, and eBay’s solution can understand and render into other languages hundreds of abbreviations used in electronic commerce.
Adaptive MT offers suggestions to translators as they type in their CAT-tool, and learns from their input continuously in real time. Introduced by Lilt in 2016 and by SDL in 2017, adaptive MT is believed to improve translator productivity significantly and can challenge translation memory technology in the future. 

MT Approaches

There are three main approaches to machine translation:
  • First-generation rule-based (RbMT) systems rely on countless algorithms based on the grammar, syntax, and phraseology of a language.
  • Statistical systems (SMT) arrived with search and big data. With lots of parallel texts becoming available, SMT developers learned to pattern-match reference texts to find translations that are statistically most likely to be suitable. These systems train faster than RbMT, provided there is enough existing language material to reference.
  • Neural MT (NMT) uses machine learning technology to teach software how to produce the best result. This process consumes large amounts of processing power, and that is why it’s often run on graphics units of CPUs. NMT started gaining visibility in 2016. Many MT providers are now switching to this technology.

References : 

Minggu, 20 Januari 2019



 Gamper and Knapp (2002) define Computer-Aided
Language Learning (CALL) as “a research field which
explores the use of computational methods and techniques
as well as new media for language learning and
teaching” (p. 329). In more general terms, CALL can
be thought of as the use of computers to help learn
languages. As a sub-category of Computer-Aided
Learning (CAL), CALL deals exclusively with learning
languages. Specific examples of CALL tools and
utilities include games, tests, exercises, and word
processing, and their use in a CALL session is
determined by the syllabus, software, teacher, or
The popularity of CALL is constantly increasing as
multimedia developments and technology are advancing.
In the last few years, CALL systems have
become fully integrated with audio and video support,
creating interesting and attractive presentations. With
the Internet emerging, a new platform for CALL
systems has evolved. Thus, there has been a move
from CD-ROM-based CALL to online Web-based
CALL, enabling more connectivity and interactivity
with other students or teachers. Important examples
of why CALL has moved to Web-based mediums
include the ability to carry out audio and
videoconferencing, use chat rooms and e-mail, and
communicate with native speakers of the language.

As Hubbard (1996) points out, the question for many
language teachers now seems to be not whether, but
how computers can aid in the language learning
process. The use of computers in language acquisition
is becoming common practice, a challenge for research,
and a business opportunity.
In 1987 Hubbard found that courseware reviews
commonly focus on technical considerations, and that
this was sometimes at the expense of language teaching
and learning considerations. He proposed a CALL
Methodological Framework (Hubbard, 1987) that
synthesises the previously developed frameworks of
Philips (1985) and Richards and Rodgers (1982). Key
players in Hubbard’s (1987) framework are the learner,
the developer, the evaluator, and the teacher.
Hubbard’s methodology consists of three modules—
development, evaluation, and implementation—in
which “development necessarily precedes evaluation
while both development and evaluation precede implementation.”
Furthermore in this framework, an integral
approach to evaluation, development, and implementation
is followed where “evaluation can inform
development and implementation experiences can
inform both development and evaluation” (Hubbard,
1996, p. 20).

Development Module

Hubbard’s development module comprises three sections:
approach, design, and procedure. In the approach
section, linguistic assumptions and learning
assumptions are the two principal determining elements.
The two fundamental components of the
design section are the learner profiles and the syllabus.
Finally, the procedure section of the development
model contains the elements to be considered in
the actual layout of the program that presents the
materials (Hubbard, 1996).

Evaluation Module
The evaluation module is made up of three sections:
teacher fit (approach), learner fit, (design) and operational
description (procedure). This module focuses
on pedagogical issues like learning style, teaching approach, and linguistic assumptions (Hubbard, 1996).
Although not addressed by Hubbard, one can assume
that the evaluation module can also contain elements
of usability evaluation of the CALL system.

Implementation Module
The implementation module is constituted by the
areas to be considered for the implementation such as
accessibility, the flow of a CALL lesson, learner use
of courseware, and teacher control. Hubbard (1996)
states: “The two aspects of particular note are the
central role of teacher control in learner use and the
importance of supporting preparatory and follow-up
activities” (p. 31).

Future of CALL
In this section we discuss several elements related to
the present and the immediate future of CALL. There
are examples of CALL systems today that we could
not even think of years ago. In the same way, and due
to the largely increased interest in CALL research and
applications, in the future there will probably be
CALL systems available with functionality that at the
present either seem unattainable or unrealistic.

Intelligent CALL
Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning
(ICALL) has already started to be implemented.
ICALL explores the use of Artificial Intelligence
methods and techniques for language learning (Gamper
& Knapp, 2002). The following is a brief description
of a few AI techniques that are starting to be used in
CALL systems:
• Speech recognition technologies have reached
the stage where CALL learners can talk into the
microphone, and their pronunciation and fluency
are tested, giving them results on their
progress. One such CALL software that takes
advantage of speech recognition technologies is
the “Tell me more education®” packages (see
http://www.auralog.com). In the future, speech
recognition will reach the stage where a conversational
mode can exist between the learner and
the computer, just like the learner would have a
conversation with a “living” person.
• Expert systems work by storing large amounts of
knowledge about language learning. This knowledge
includes questions and answers, typical
mistakes, and learning strategies. It is then used
to analyse the learners’ interaction with the
computer and produce detailed feedback.
Other AI techniques for CALL include Machine
Translation (e.g., “Babel Fish Translation®”; see
http://babelfish.altavista.com) and Intelligent Tutoring
Systems (e.g., personalised learning environments).

Computer-Assisted Language Testing
Computer-Assisted Language Testing (CALT) can be
defined as “an integrated procedure in which language
performance is elicited and assessed with the help of
a computer” (Niojons, 1994). Like CALL, CALT is
not a relatively new field, but interest in this area has
increased significantly in the past few years. A very
common example of the use of CALT is for multiple
choice questions. If the testing system is designed and
implemented correctly, then the results of the computer
testing will be immediate and without errors,
whereas if multiple choice questions are corrected by
people, there is always the possibility of human error,
and also the process is a lot lengthier and time
consuming. CALT systems can be used for reading
tests, listening tests, and writing tests. Games can also
be used as CALT systems. For example, hangman is
a great word game, and is fun and engaging. It is
important, however, for CALT programs to provide
the learners with clear and accurate feedback results.
One of the most successful CALT systems is the
one used for the TOEFL exams. The Test of English
as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is taken worldwide
by nearly a million people each year. It is an important
test since the results determine whether students are
to be accepted into many U.S. universities. TOEFL
used to be a ‘pen-and-pencil’ exam, but since 1998 it
has become, and still is, a computer-based exam
taking advantage of CALT.
CALT will continue to play a vital role in the future
of Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

In this article we defined CALL, presented a CALL
methodological framework, and discussed the future
of CALL. As Ahmad, Corbett, Rogers, and Sussex
(1985) pointed out, CALL arose from the combination
of two separate factors: educational needs and technological
means. The constant advances in technology
are creating new and exciting opportunities for the
delivery of CALL systems. However, one must not
focus solely on the technology side of CALL. Pedagogical
issues are also extremely important for a
successful language learning process. With both pedagogy
and technology together as the focus of CALL
research, the final systems implemented more accurately
meet the language learning educational needs by
providing a plethora of language learning activities.
Today CALL is more popular than ever. The Internet
and the World Wide Web have provided us with
delivery methods that have created language learning
opportunities that were unimaginable a few decades
ago. Videoconferencing has given us virtual classrooms.
The field of CALL is continually gaining
interest. Intelligent CALL includes techniques like
speech recognition to test the learner’s pronunciation
and accent. The future of CALL looks promising!

Source : https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264042313_Computer-Aided_Language_Learning/

Essay About Listening


Well, talking about my fav subject. actually my fav subject is Listening. i got that subject from first degree until 3rd degree. its just so cool to listen the audio or listen the lecture talked about something and we should translate to indonesian language. I think listening same important with reading also speaking. those are very important to master in english language. While listening something we will know more and more vocabulary that we never known before. Never boring to practice listening, we can practicing with listening music or watch a movie without subtitle to add our vocab. 

   Effective Listening Skills Assignment:
             1. Why are effective listening skills vital to your success?
             I believe that listening skills are vital to my success because it is a universal form of communicating. Listening is an important tool in communicating with others. In order to answer questions and be apart of group discussions I would have to be able to listen and comprehend the topics. Listening is vital to my success because I'll be able to prove that I do have good comprehension skills and am able to listen to directions. To succeed in my career I need to prove that I am capable of accomplishing tasks that require important listening skills. 
             2. Everyone talks about how important listening is but a few people are good at it. Why?
             I think the idea of listening has been instilled as an important behavior ever since we were born. Our parents are our first teachers who have taught us the importance of their rules. Living under our parents' roof meant listening and following their rules. When school starts we are listening to authority figures and have to obey them to stay out of trouble. It is important for people to see others practicing good listening skills because that skill can help them. When parents or teachers don't practice what they preach the children assume they don't always have to take mom and dad's rules seriously. Few people are good at listening because they have been educated about the importance of it. The few people that are educated know the strategies and rules to being a good listener. 
             3. In your opinion what makes someone a good listener?

             I think we should listen carefully for what the speaker talking about, and just focus, dont let anything bother you while you listening something. dont let something attrack your attention. And dont be tired for practice everyday to add your vocab, you can listening to music or a news or just any shows on tv. When you find difficult word you can look up the dictionary or just google it.